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Writing Style Guide

Generally, the University of Richmond Style Guide follows the Associated Press Stylebook. However, some exceptions have been made to best serve the needs of the University community. For situations not addressed here, please consult the AP Stylebook or the current edition of Webster's New World College Dictionary.

Campus References

University of Richmond

In subsequent references, "Richmond" or the "University" may be used. Capitalize University only when referring specifically to the University of Richmond. Never capitalize "the" before University of Richmond because it is not part of the official name.

Example:

In the early years of the University of Richmond, the majority of students were Virginians. Today, a significant percentage of students from all over the United States and even the world study at the University.

Schools Within the University
General Information

Five individual schools, and a graduate school within the business school, comprise the University of Richmond as a whole; each school has its own name, charter, and identity. Therefore, it is important to refer to these separate schools by their specific names.

Please note that "the" is not capitalized in reference to any of our schools in either formal or informal usage; however, it is acceptable to use a lower case "the" when using a school's name in textual matter.

Also note that building names and school names do not necessarily correlate. For example, the Robins School of Business is both a building name and a school name. However, the Jepson School of Leadership Studies is housed in Jepson Hall, which also houses other academic departments.

Example:

Incorrect: The speaker series sponsored by the Jepson School of Leadership Studies will take place in the Jepson School of Leadership Studies, Room 218.

Correct: The speaker series sponsored by the Jepson School of Leadership Studies will take place in Jepson Hall, Room 218.

Formal School Names

Formal names are used in most University catalogs and programs and for other external uses.

First reference:
Subsequent references:
E. Claiborne Robins School of Business Robins School of Business
Jepson School of Leadership Studies same
School of Arts and Sciences same
University of Richmond School of Law Richmond Law
School of Professional and Continuing Studies same
Richard S. Reynolds Graduate School of Business Reynolds Graduate School of Business
Informal School Names

Informal names may be used in alumni magazine articles, brochures, websites, and internal publications.

First reference: Subsequent references:
Robins School of Business Robins School or business school
Jepson School of Leadership Studies Jepson School or leadership studies school
School of Arts and Sciences Arts and Sciences or A&S
University of Richmond School of Law School of Law, law school, Richmond Law
School of Professional and Continuing Studies SPCS or continuing studies
Reynolds Graduate School of Business 
graduate business school

Unacceptable in all cases: Jepson School of Leadership

Identifying Students by Schools Attended
Degrees Earned Prior to 1993

Through 1992, Richmond College (for men), Westhampton College (for women), and the Robins School of Business (for men and women) were degree-granting schools. Therefore, in magazine articles and other copy, undergraduate students who earned degrees prior to 1993 are listed on first reference by name, college (R, W or B), and year of graduation. These designations are set off by commas.

Example:

After receiving a bachelor's degree in biology from Richmond, John Atkinson, R'67, entered medical school. He is now a toxicologist for a biotechnology company in California.

Keep in mind that students who majored in accounting, finance, marketing, or management systems all received degrees from the Robins School of Business and thus, receive the "B" notation. Students who majored in economics earned their degrees through either the School of Arts and Sciences or the Robins School of Business. If the degrees were granted through the School of Arts and Sciences, graduates receive the "R" or "W" designation.

Degrees Earned After 1992

In 1993, Westhampton College and Richmond College became residential colleges only, with all undergraduate students (including business school students) belonging to one or the other -- Westhampton College for women and Richmond College for men. Therefore, undergraduate students who earned degrees after 1992 are identified only by name and year of graduation.

Example:

Susan Pierce, '99, was one of the few business majors roaming the Modlin Center for the Arts in the facility's first years. She minored in music.

Regardless of when they earned a degree, students with advanced or continuing studies degrees are identified by name, school designation, and the year the degree was earned. The designations are as follows:

Graduate School of Arts and Sciences: G
School of Professional and Continuing Studies: C
Graduate School of Professional and Continuing Studies: GC
Richard S. Reynolds Graduate School: GB
University of Richmond School of Law: L

Example:

Patricia E. Smith, L'98, spent 10 years as a teacher before entering the University of Richmond School of Law.

Multiple Degrees

Students who earn both undergraduate and advanced degrees, or two advanced degrees, from the University are identified with each designation.

Examples:

In the midst of a high-speed world, Jonathan Poston, R'76 and L'81, performs a job that still requires patience. He's the preservation director for the Historic Charleston, S.C., Foundation.

Mary Smith, '95 and GB'02, has received a promotion and is now working on Wall Street.

Centers and Institutes

Corella and Bertram F. Bonner Center for Civic Engagement; use Bonner Center for Civic Engagement for informal use.

Osher Lifelong Learning Institute; use Osher Institute for informal use.

Weinstein Center for Recreation and Wellness; use Weinstein Center for informal use.

Degrees and Designations
Academic Degrees

The following abbreviations are used to identify earned degrees.

Associate in Applied Studies A.A.S.
Associate in Liberal Arts A.L.A.
Bachelor of Applied Studies B.A.S.
Bachelor of Arts B.A.
Bachelor of Liberal Arts B.L.A.
Bachelor of Science B.S.
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration B.S.B.A.
Bachelor of Music B.Mus.
Juris Doctor J.D.
Master of Arts M.A.
Master of Science M.S.
Master of Liberal Arts M.L.A.
Master of Business Administration M.B.A.
Master of Human Resource Management M.H.R.M.
Master of Disaster Science M.D.S.

In University catalogs, commencement programs, and other similar publications, these abbreviations are used. In press releases, magazine articles, and internal publications, it is acceptable to use "associate's degree," "bachelor's degree," or "master's degree."

Do not use the terms "associate's," "bachelor's," or "master's" by themselves, since they are adjectives modifying the word "degree."

Incorrect: She earned her bachelor's in English.

Also, it is preferable to use "a degree," not "his degree" or "her degree."

Examples:

She earned a bachelor's degree in English.

She earned a B.A. in English.

Though the University does not grant doctoral degrees, there may be cases where they are referred to in copy. Use Ph.D., doctoral degree, or doctorate.

Examples:

Incorrect: Richmond's new humanities professor holds a doctorate degree from Harvard.

Correct: Richmond's new humanities professor holds a doctoral degree from Harvard.

Richmond's new humanities professor holds a doctorate from Harvard.

Richmond's new humanities professor holds a Ph.D. from Harvard.

Honorary Degrees

For those who receive honorary degrees, the letter "H" is used after the individual's name with the date the degree was conferred. Do not refer to someone as "Dr." if he or she has only an honorary doctorate.

The University awards the following honorary degrees:

Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Science
Doctor of Commercial Science
Doctor of Letters or Doctor of Literature
Doctor of Fine Arts
Doctor of Humanities
Doctor of Divinity
Doctor of Social Sciences
Doctor of Humane Letters
Doctor of Leadership

Board of Trustees, Associates

People who are members of the University of Richmond's Board of Trustees or Board of Associates are identified as such, either as part of the name identification or later in the copy.

Examples:

Name, W'81, and trustee

Name, R'77, and Board of Trustees member

Name, W'81, and Board of Associates member

Alumnae and Alumni

Use alumnus (alumni in the plural) when referring to a man (or group of men) who graduated from the University of Richmond. Use alumna (alumnae in the plural) when referring to a woman (or group of women) who graduated from the University. Use alumni when referring to a group of men and women who have graduated from the University. Avoid the cumbersome alumnae/i.

Examples:

Incorrect: Dr. Edward L. Ayers addressed the alumni of Westhampton College at the University of Richmond.

Correct: Dr. Edward L. Ayers addressed the alumnae of Westhampton College at the University of Richmond. Then he spoke to the alumni of Richmond College. After that, he met with a select group of alumni from both Westhampton and Richmond colleges.

Fellows

Use lowercase "f" when identifying someone with this honor.

Example:

John Doe, R'59, has been named a fellow of the American Medical Society.

Titles
Academic Titles

"Dr." is used on first reference for University professors holding doctoral degrees as well as Richmond graduates who have either academic or medical degrees. The courtesy title is not used in subsequent references for either doctoral or medical degrees.

Do not use Ph.D., M.D., D.D.S. or J.D. after the person's name.

Examples:

Correct: Dr. Joanne B. Ciulla was named to a new chair at the United Nations University International Leadership Academy. Ciulla is a professor in the Jepson School of Leadership Studies.

Incorrect: John Lawson, R'89 and M.D., has opened a reconstructive surgery practice in Reston, Va. Previously, Dr. Lawson had been in partnership with two other physicians.

Correct: Dr. John Lawson, R'89, has opened a reconstructive surgery practice in Reston, Va. Previously, Lawson had been in partnership with two other physicians.

Job Titles

Titles are capitalized when they precede a name. It is acceptable, and often preferred, to list the title after a person's name. Titles that follow names are not capitalized in flowing text; however, titles after names in a list are capitalized. (The exceptions are endowed professorships.)

Examples:

Incorrect: Dr. Edward L. Ayers, President of the University of Richmond, traveled to Berlin recently.

Awkward: University of Richmond President Dr. Edward L. Ayers traveled to Berlin recently.

Preferred: Dr. Edward L. Ayers, president of the University of Richmond, traveled to Berlin recently.

Dr. Edward L. Ayers, President

Titles generally are not used on subsequent reference.

Examples:

Incorrect: Dr. Edward L. Ayers, president of the University of Richmond, traveled to Berlin recently. President Ayers said he was impressed with the students he met.

Correct: Dr. Edward L. Ayers, president of the University of Richmond, traveled to Berlin recently. Ayers said he was impressed with the students he met.

Emeritus, Emerita, Emeritae, Emeriti

A title bestowed on retired faculty and administrators. When used, emeritus follows the formal title. For individual female professors, the correct term is professor emerita (plural: professors emeritae). When an individual male professor, the correct term is professor emeritus. When an all-male or mixed group, correct term is professors emeriti. Do not set off from the faculty title with a comma. Preferred usage for chancellors/former presidents is to lead with the current position (chancellor), followed by president emeritus.

Examples:

Robert Shepherd, professor of law emeritus, spoke to law graduates about the clinical program he directed during his teaching career.

E. Bruce Heilman, H'86, University Chancellor and president emeritus, recently completed a motorcycle trip across the country.

Chairs

A person in charge of a committee is a "chair," not a "chairman," "chairwoman," or "chairperson." As with above rules, capitalize only when it precedes a name.

Endowed Professorships
Endowed professorships are capitalized even when the title of the professorship follows the name.

Example:

Correct: Joseph A. Jennings Chair in Business KimMarie McGoldrick is frequently recognized for excellence in teaching.

KimMarie McGoldrick, Joseph A. Jennings Chair in Business, is frequently recognized for excellence in teaching.

Official names of University of Richmond endowed chairs, professorships, and fellowships:

George E. Allen Chair in Law
Lewis T. Booker Professorship in Religion & Ethics
James A. Bostwick Chair of English
CSX Chair in Management & Accounting
George & Sallie Cutchin Camp Professor of Bible
Coston Family Chair in Leadership & Ethics
Coston Family Fellow in Molecular Biology
Solon B. Cousins Chair of Religion
Clarence E. Denoon, Jr. Professorship of Science
Douglas Southall Freeman Chair in History
Robert Edwin Gaines Chair in Mathematics
William Judson Gaines Chair in Modern Foreign Languages
Floyd D. Gottwald & Elisabeth S. Gottwald Chair in Chemistry
Tyler & Alice Haynes Professorship in American Studies
Tyler Haynes Interdisciplinary Chair in Leadership Studies and Political Science
Note: This chair may be renamed appropriate to the discipline, i.e., Tyler Haynes Interdisciplinary Chair in __________.
Joseph A. Jennings Chair in Business
D. A. Kuyk Professorship of Biology
Robert Edward & Lena Frazer Loving Chair of Physics
Irving May Chair of Human Relations
Samuel Chiles Mitchell-Jacob Billikopf Professorship in History
George Matthews & Virginia Brinkley Modlin Chair in Leadership Studies
Richard L. Morrill Distinguished University Chair in Ethics & Democratic Values
Roger Francis & Mary Saunders Richardson Chair in Mathematics
Robert E. Rigsby Chair in Economics
Rigsby Fellow in Economics
W. David Robbins Chair in Strategic Management
E. Claiborne Robins Distinguished Professorship in Business
E. Claiborne Robins Distinguished University Chair
E. Claiborne Robins Distinguished Professorship in Leadership Studies
James Thomas Professorship in Philosophy
Colonel Leo K. & Gaylee Thorsness Endowed Chair in Ethical Leadership
F. Carlyle Tiller Chair in Business
MacEldin Trawick Professorship in Psychology
Tucker-Boatwright Professorship of Humanities–Art
Tucker-Boatwright Professorship of Humanities–Philosophy
William Binford Vest Chair of History
Carole M. Weinstein Chair of International Education
Weinstein Family Endowed Chair in the Social Sciences
Marcus M. & Carole Weinstein and Gilbert M. & Fannie S. Rosenthal Jewish and Christian Studies Chair
The Distinguished Chair in Finance
David Meade White, Jr. Chair in Business
David Meade White Distinguished Teaching Fellow
Williams Chair in Law

Office, Department, and Committee Titles

Capitalize all office titles when used in full. Capitalize official department names. (However, it is preferable to lowercase department names in all but the most formal of uses.) Lowercase committee names.

Examples:

The Department of Chemistry and the Office of International Education are co-sponsoring the event. The chemistry department, however, is the primary sponsor.

The academic affairs committee is scheduled to meet tomorrow with the Office of International Education and the chemistry department to discuss proposed curriculum changes.

Other Titles

Abbreviate military titles when they precede a name.

Abbreviate reverend as "the Rev."

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